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Biology / Human Physiology

Biology / Human Physiology

Anatomy is the examination of the structures of the body. Physiology is the functions of the body.


Nutrition and the Digestive system: Animal nutrition covers nutrient requirements, how the food is consumed, and how the body utilizes the food. Digestion is process that converts complex food substances to simpler ones.
Nutrition involves the following:

  • Ingestion
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Assimilation
  • Egestion


Circulatory system and Transportation of food and nutrients: Living organisms need a transport system to transport food, gases, mineral salts, hormones which is required for normal functioning. Transportation of substances is done by the circulatory system comprising of blood, blood vessels(arteries, veins and capillaries) and heart.

The movement of the blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart is called circulation of blood. During this blood flows to arteries with pressure called blood pressure. It is measured with an instrument called sphygmomanometer The normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of mercury.

The Lymphatic system - balances between tissue fluid and blood and prevents infection.


Excretory system : The functions of nephron are purification of blood and urine formation. Parts of nephron - malpighian corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tuble, hele's loop and distal convoluted tuble. Osmoregulation is the technique involved in urine formation. Understand Dialysis which is used in case of kidney failure and acts as artificial kidney

You can read more about Excretory system at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kidneysandurinarysystem.html


Nervous System : Study of nerves is neurology. Learn the structure of neurons and its types.

Human nervous system consists of :

  • central-brain - centres for hunger, thirst, thinking, maintaining posture, speech and writing and spinal cord which takes care of reflex actions. e.g. response to pricking of pin etc.
  • peripheral - control voluntary actions e.g. running etc.
  • autonomic - controls involuntary action e.g. respiration

Types of reflexes: 

• Unconditioned - These are inborn reflexes. They are controlled by nerve path called reflex arc. e.g. knee jerk, blinking, swallowing

• Conditioned - These are responses to stimuli acquired during the lifetime of the organism. These are controlled by cerebral cortex. e.g. learning, playing. Revise the role of sense organs as a part of nervous system.

Learn about the different sense organs in detail.

Have you ever thought why some are tall and some are short in your class? This variation is due to inheritance of hormones. What are hormones? Where do they come from? Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands(ductless) of endocrine system directly into blood stream.


The endocrine system consists of • pituitary gland - secretes growth hormone and controls growth • thyroid gland - thyroxin, controls metabolic rate • adrenal gland - adrenaline, prepares body for emergency • pancreas - insulin, regulates blood sugar level • ovaries - estrogen • testes - testosterone, development of secondary sexual characters.


Reproductive system : Sexual reproduction takes place with the help of sex cells called gametes, sperms ( produced by the male ) and ovum or egg (female). An ovum and a sperm combine in a process called fertilisation to form a zygote. Fertilisation may occur external(outside the body) or internal (inside the female body). In humans, the male reproductive organs are the testes and the female reproductive organs are the ovaries. Fertilisation in humans occurs in the oviduct of the female and the zygote develops in the uterus before being born. The zygote grows by cell division to form the embryo which develops into the foetus. As population increases no space on earth. List the problems faced due to increase in population. Learn about the methods of population control-family planning.


  • Human Nutrition - SmartTest

    SmartTest on Human Nutrition

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    Human Digestive System - SmartTest

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    Human Circulatory System - SmartTest

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    Human Respiration - SmartTest

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    Human Excretory System - SmartTest

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    Human Reproductive System - SmartTest

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    Movement and Locomotion - SmartTest

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    Human Nervous System - SmartTest

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    Personal Health - SmartTest

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    • Food and diet
    • Digestion, absorption and use of food
    • The blood circulatory system
    • Breathing
    • Excretion and the kidneys
    • The skin and temperature control
    • Human reproduction
    • The skeleton, muscles and movement
    • The senses
    • Co-ordination
    • Personal health




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