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Biology / Human Anatomy and Physiology - Nervous System

Biology / Human Anatomy and Physiology - Nervous System

Anatomy is the examination of the structures of the body. Physiology is the functions of the body.

Circulatory system Transportation of food and nutrients: Living organisms need a transport system to transport food, gases, mineral salts, hormones which is required for normal functioning. Transportation of substances is done by the circulatory system comprising of blood, blood vessels(arteries, veins and capillaries) and heart.
The movement of the blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart is called circulation of blood. During this blood flows to arteries with pressure called blood pressure. It is measured with an instrument called sphygmomanometer

The normal blood pressure is 120/80mm of mercury.

The Lymphatic system - balances between tissue fluid and blood and prevents infection.

Excretory system - The functions of nephron are purification of blood and urine formation.
Parts of nephron - malpighian corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tuble, hele's loop and distal convoluted tuble. Osmoregulation is the technique involved in urine formation. Understand Dialysis which is used in case of kidney failure and acts as artificial kidney
You can read more about Excretory system at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kidneysandurinarysystem.html

Nervous System Study of nerves is neurology. Revise structure of neurons and its types.
Human nervous system consists of :
central-brain - centres for hunger, thirst, thinking, maintaining posture, speech and writing and spinal cord which takes care of reflex actions. e.g. response to pricking of pin etc.
peripheral - control voluntary actions e.g. running etc.
autonomic - controls involuntary action e.g. respiration

Types of reflexes -

Unconditioned - These are inborn reflexes. They are controlled by nerve path called reflex arc. e.g. knee jerk, blinking, swallowing
Conditioned - These are responses to stimuli acquired during the lifetime of the organism. These are controlled by cerebral cortex. e.g. learning, playing.
Revise the role of sense organs as a part of nervous system. Learn about the different sense organs in detail.
Have you ever thought why some are tall and some are short in your class? This variation is due to inheritance of hormones. What are hormones? Where do they come from? Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands(ductless) of endocrine system directly into blood stream.

The endocrine system consists of
pituitary gland - secretes growth hormone and controls growth
thyroid gland - thyroxin, controls metabolic rate
adrenal gland - adrenaline, prepares body for emergency
pancreas - insulin, regulates blood sugar level
ovaries - estrogen
testes - testosterone, development of secondary sexual characters.

Reproductive system -Sexual reproduction takes place with the help of sex cells called gametes, sperms ( produced by the male ) and ovum or egg (female).

An ovum and a sperm combine in a process called fertilisation to form a zygote.
Fertilisation may occur external(outside the body) or internal (inside the female body).

In humans, the male reproductive organs are the testes and the female reproductive organs are the ovaries. Fertilisation in humans occurs in the oviduct of the female and the zygote develops in the uterus before being born. The zygote grows by cell division to form the embryo which develops into the foetus.

As population increases no space on earth. List the problems faced due to increase in population. Learn about the methods of population control-family planning.


  • Nervous System - SmartTest

    A SmartTest on Nervous System

    • Accessed by: 267 Students
    • Average Time: 00:04:09
    • Average Score: 59.12
    • Questions: 34
    • Need for Nervous System
    • Functions of the nervous system
    • Structure of neuron
    • Types of neurons
    • Conduction of the nerve impulse
    • Synapse
    • Nerves
    • Division of the nervous system
    • Brain
    • Division of the nervous system -Spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Reflex action - types
    • Reflex arc
    • Eye - structure, function and defects
    • Ear - structure and function
    • Sense of smell
    • Tongue
    • Touch and other miscellaneous senses
    • Review nervous system
    • Review of Nervous system




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