A Chemical symbol represent a specific element or an atom of an element. A chemical symbol makes it easier to write a chemical reaction. Berzilius in 1804 suggested a simple system to represent elements.
A Valency describes how easily an atom or radical can combine with other chemical species. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost or shared if it reacts with other atoms. Valency is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity. For example, common valencies of copper are 1 and 2.
A radical is a group of atoms of elements that behaves like a single unit and shows valency. e.g. ammonium [NH4+]
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. It is represented by a chemical equation. A complete chemical equation represents the reactants, products and their physical states symbolically. A chemical equation is balanced so that the numbers of atoms of each type involved in a chemical reaction are the same on the reactant and product sides of the equation. Equations must always be balanced.
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